by: Stephen B. Blezinger
In more recent history, cattle producers are beginning to focus more on production efficiency. “What is the most economical way I can produce a calf or a pound of gain on the bulls and heifers I sell?” With every production parameter there is an efficiency measurement that comes with it. Cattle producers are in a constant search for ways to save money or improve productivity and profits. Producers who are in the business to be profitable and to maximize profits should review all avenues that can improve efficiency and help the productivity and performance of their herds. Since the largest single input for most herds is nutrition this article will focus on this aspect.
To improve nutritional efficiency the producer is tasked with providing the best, most nutrient available sources of forages and feed possible on a continuous basis. Sometimes this is reasonably simple. Sometimes it's not. This can extend to pasture and stored forage production and insuring the best quality forages can be produced at the best price. It also includes the procurement and provision of quality (not necessarily cheapest) supplements that fit the program the best. With the feeds and supplements comes the opportunity to provide a variety of nutritional tools that can improve performance and positively affect profitability.
Nutritional tools can be defined as products or additives of various types which can be fed to the animal to improve digestion and/or absorption of various critical nutrients or serve some other valuable function. Some of these work in the animal's digestive system (particularly the rumen) to modify the ruminal fermentation or the digestive process to more extensively break down nutrients or to modify the end products produced from digestion. Additionally a variety of products are available to enhance the performance of the animal's immune system. Finally, there are still other products that can modify the animal's metabolism to improve the efficiency of protein and fat accretion and deposition in the animal to enhance carcass characteristics.
Let's start off with looking at some of the more common, well-known products.
1) Ionophores*. Ionophores are antibiotics fed to cattle which modify the microbial population in the rumen and enhances the fermentation process. Generally, this reduces the number of bacteria that tend to produce waste products (gasses, acids, heat, etc.) that are not used efficiently by the animal as a nutrient source. This also results in increased numbers of the bacteria that produce beneficial products (other organic acids, microbial protein, etc.). Common ionophores include Rumensin®, Bovatec® and Cattlyst®. These products are designed to be fed daily at only milligrams per head per day to achieve the desired results, normally an improvement in feed efficiency although there are claims for other benefits such as the reduction in coccidiosis and bloat control.
2) Antibiotics. Various fed antibiotics are available to reduce the presence and effects of certain pathogenic organisms such as anaplasmosis, e. coli, salmonella etc. Antibiotics have been used at continuous low levels for improvements in rate of gain and feed efficiency. Higher levels of antibiotics typically are fed for prevention and treatment of diseases or conditions such as scours, coccidiosis, shipping fever complex, anaplasmosis, foot rot, and liver abscesses. Chlortetracycline (Aureomycin®, others), neomycin sulfate/oxytetracycline (Terramycin®), bacitracin (Albac 50®) and tylosin (Tylan®) are examples of antibiotics intended for specific disease prevention or treatment.
Obviously, this is now more complicated for the producer with the start of the new Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD).
3) Coccidiostats*. Coccidiosis is a common problem in calves caused by the protozoal organisms Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Amprolium (Corid®), decoquinate (Deccox®) are products that have been proven to reduce the effects of these organisms and subsequently improve animal performance.
4) Estrus Suppressant. Melengestrol acetate (MGA®) is a feed additive that suppresses estrus (heat or cyclic sexual activity) and improves gain and feed efficiency in beef females. Practical application of MGA® includes heifer estrus synchronization programs, however, wider use is in feedlots where MGA in finishing diets reduces heifer riding behavior and associated production losses.
5) Bloat Prevention. Poloxalene (Bloat Guard®) can be fed to beef cattle to help prevent bloat on legume and other lush pasture. Poloxalene can be mixed with feed or different supplements or offered in block form. As with most additives, for product effectiveness, cattle must consume adequate quantities of poloxalene so proper intake control is important.
6) Yeast Products. Yeast has been fed to cattle for decades and has been shown to exhibit a variety of beneficial properties. Yeast products are found in several forms. Yeast cultures (most commonly, strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae) have been shown in a wide variety of studies to improve feed efficiency, gains, and health in cattle. Yeast cultures and yeast fermentation products also affect dry matter intake, rumen pH, and nutrient digestibility. Production applications of yeast cultures include use in receiving diets of both low- and high-stress cattle, inclusion in mineral and other cow supplements and in feeds for all-natural and organically fed cattle.
7) Organic or Chelated Trace Minerals. Organic trace minerals (also referred to as complexes or chelates) are trace mineral (TM) sources where the key nutrient metal (copper, zinc, selenium*, etc.) have been combined with an organic carrier. This may be an amino acid, peptide (combination of amino acids), carbohydrate or other organic acid. Research has shown that improving the TM status of the animal by improving absorption has positive effects on reproduction, health and growth.
8) Buffers. Buffers can be added to beef cattle diets to reduce fluctuations in rumen pH. Sources such as sodium bicarbonate help reduce the incidence of acidosis when adapting cattle to high grain diets or when feeding cattle high starch rations including corn or wheat at high levels. Buffers are commonly used in dairy cattle rations.
9) Fly Control. Oral larvicides are fed to cattle through feed, supplements or mineral to kill fly larvae as they hatch in the manure. They are effective only when animals consume the proper amount of the active ingredient. Oral larvicides do not control migrating adult flies. Adult flies can still be a problem if a producer is using an oral larvicide but a neighbor is not practicing any fly control. Insect growth regulators that disrupt fly life cycles are other fly control products available as feed additives. These products include (S)-Methoprene (Altosid®), tetrachlorvinphos (Rabon®), diflubenzuron (Clarifly®).
10) Internal Parasite Control. Three anthelmintics (dewormers) are available as feed additives. Delivery of anthelmintics is advantageous when animal handling for direct delivery of dewormers is difficult. As with other feed additives, effectiveness of anthelmintics delivered through feed depends on cattle consuming adequate quantities of the product. Fed anthelmintics include fenbendazole (Safeguard®), levamisole hydrochloride (Tramisol®) and morantel tartarate (Rumatel®)
11) Mycotoxin Binders. The negative effects various mycotoxins have on cattle performance and health is well documented. A number of products have shown effectiveness on binding of mycotoxins such as aflatoxin, vomitoxin, DON, etc. However, the regulatory environment for these types of products, in the United States is varied and often unclear. The producer should discuss the options with a qualified nutritionist.
With the regulatory and consumer pressure placed on the use of antibiotics and other “chemically-based” feed additives, other additives have been identified that have shown promise in enhancing animal performance (gain, health, reproduction). Many of these products are microbially-based or have their origin in microbial fermentation. Many of these fall into the category of direct fed microbial (DFM). In most cases, these products are only fed at rate of grams per head per day.
1) Bacterial Cultures. Feeding of microbial cultures to beef cattle is not new. A wide variety of bacteria are available for feeding and have shown to produce varying results including improved average daily gains and feed efficiency, reductions in ruminal upset (bloat, acidosis caused by excessive lactic acid production). These bacteria are available in a freeze-dried culture form or as a fermentation product which may or may not include live bacterial cells. The most commonly fed DFMs are Lactobacillus acidophilus (and other Lactobacillus species), L. casei, Enterococcus diacetylactis, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Bacillus subtilis. Much of the research in feeding bacteria has involved feeding lactobacillus-based DFMs to young calves fed milk, calves being weaned, or cattle shipped to the feedyard because these conditions were often classified as times of high stress.
2) Fungal DFMs. While yeasts may also be considered a fungal product, they have been differentiated here for clarification. Fungal DFMs include products such as Aspergillus oryzae (AO) and Aspergillus Niger (AN) both of which have been used in numerous of applications, largely to improve fiber digestion. Some work has shown feeding OA to beef cows helped improve digestion and subsequent nutrient availability when feeding poorer quality forages.
3) Mannan Oligosaccharides (MOS). Mannan Oligosaccharide (MOS) is a molecule extracted from the cell walls of yeasts. The most common of these is Saccharomyces cerevisiae (mentioned above). MOS works at the surface of the animal's intestinal wall and is involved in interactions with the animal's immune system with a resulting enhancement of immune system activity. They also play a role in animal antioxidant and antimutagenic (cell mutation) defense. Additionally, in some cases this MOS attachment can aid with nutrient absorption. In other situations, it can prevent pathogenic organisms from binding to the intestinal membranes where they can invade the body (competitive inhibition).
4) Beta-glucans. Beta (β)-glucans are major structural components of the cell wall of yeast, fungi and some cereals such as barley and oats. β-Glucans are similar to, and in many cases confused with MOS. They are significantly different and function in the intestine differently. Of these β-glucans, those from yeast cells are the most common. β-glucans are known as "biological response modifiers" because of their ability to activate the immune system. Research has shown beneficial effects on the stimulation of the immune system by compounds of microbial or plant origin such as, β-glucans, with the potential to minimize the incidence of disease in livestock.
5) Enzymes. Enzymes are protein molecules that catalyze specific chemical reactions. The use of enzymes in the feeding industry is not new. In most cases, feeding enzymes is believed to increase the rate and extent of digestion of certain nutrients. In cattle, enzyme feeding is thought to help in improving fiber digestion as well as that of other nutrients such as protein, starch and other carbohydrates and fats, especially in the rumen. Enzymes are commonly derived from the fermentation of bacteria, fungi, yeasts and other microbes.
The cattle producer has a significant list of nutritional tools to enhance the performance and feed efficiency. It is important to become familiar with these products, what combinations can be used and enlist appropriate advice in determining which can provide the greatest response and more importantly, return on investment, in the herd.
Copyright 2017 – Dr. Stephen B. Blezinger. Dr. Steve Blezinger is a nutrition and management consultant with an office in Sulphur Springs, TX. He can be reached at (903) 352-3475 or by email at firstname.lastname@example.org. For more information visit www.facebook.com/Reveille Livestock Concepts.
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