bottle calves for newbies

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milkmaid
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bottle calves for newbies

Postby milkmaid » Wed Aug 06, 2008 10:32 pm

It seems as if everyone and their dog has bottle calves nowdays, and no idea how to care for them. So, I figure it’s about time to put together a post with some basic calf-raising information.

The cow’s colostrum contains important antibodies that will protect the calf from disease for the first few months of life, and so it is vital that the calf get colostrum within the first 24 hours of life. Between 0 and 24 hours the bovine gut is “open” and will absorb those antibodies. After 24 hours of life it is almost pointless to give colostrum and if the calf has not gotten colostrum yet, chances are high that keeping the calf alive will be an uphill battle for the first few months of life. Ideally the calf would get 1/2 gallon of colostrum within 2 hours after birth, and then 1/2 gallon 12 hours later.

If you use commercial colostrum, read the label! Not all commercial colostrum replacers are created equal, and that calf needs one that contains 100g of IgG. Some only contain 50g IgG and that's not enough. For the calf that does not manage to get colostrum at birth, there is a commercial plasma product containing bovine IgG that can be given IV. ID-1 from Immuno Dynamics will cost about $40 for the treatment (cost of plasma).

Feeding a bottle calf for the first few times… I’ve seen people try to stand in front of the calf and simply hold the bottle out. Note that feeding a calf is not like coaxing a puppy over for a treat. The calf has no idea what the bottle is, and your job is to show him. Back the calf into a corner and either stand to the side as shown, or straddle him and stuff the bottle in his mouth. Notice the hand below the calf’s jaw to support her head.
Image

Look for a milk replacer designed for calves that is at least 20% protein and 20% fat, and made from real milk. Some replacers are made from soy milk and are inadequate for raising a calf.

Opinions differ on whether a bottle calf must be raised on a BOTTLE or if they can be given their milk in a bucket. Some studies have shown that the action of nursing causes the milk to be sent directly to the abomasum where the milk is best digested, whereas simply drinking from a bucket results in the milk going to the (currently undeveloped) rumen. Because of this, some people choose to bottle feed calves from birth to weaning. It is worth noting, however, that dairies bucket feed all calves, and it is done with no ill effects to the calf. In fact, most dairy heifers are big enough to breed as 12-14 month olds so bucket feeding evidently didn’t stunt their growth.

Grain is essential for raising bottle calves once they're weaned, and they need to stay on grain until they’re at least 400-500lbs and their rumen is big enough it can hold enough grass/hay to provide them with enough nutrition for growth. If bottle calves are not properly fed they will look “potbellied” and will be smaller than they should be for their age. A bottle calf really needs 2-2.5% of their body weight in grain that is at least 14-16% protein on a daily basis. Check the labels at your local feed store and try to find a specific “calf starter” for the first few months of the calf’s life.

Potbellied calves:
severe case...
Image

mild case... she's in good condition, but slightly potbellied
Image

The calf needs to be eating at least 2% of their body weight in grain before they can be weaned – otherwise they will not be getting adequate nutrition from their feed and will become stunted and potbellied.

Opinions also differ on when to feed hay to bottle calves. Some don’t introduce hay until after weaning so that the calf will learn to eat grain, since that is what will provide the most nutritionally for the calf. Others introduce hay right away to help develop the rumen (stemmy hay is ideal for kick-starting the rumen)… IMO it is simply a matter of preference as I’ve seen it done successfully both ways.

“Scours” is the cattleman’s term for diarrhea.
Image

It can be caused by anything from too much milk, to bacteria (ie. ecoli), to viruses (ie. rotavirus) to protozoa (ie crypto). Regardless of what caused it, the most important thing in a scours case is supportive therapy (fluids, electrolytes, etc.). Almost any antibiotic labeled for cattle is acceptable for treating scours. Preferred antibiotics are oxytetracycline 200, Spectam, sulfas (Sustain III or SMZs), terramycin, and occasionally penicillin, Baytril, Excenel… the only one I wouldn’t recommend is Nuflor, since diarrhea is a side effect of using Nuflor, and is not a good idea for a calf that’s already scouring. (Also note that while gentamicin is often effective against scours, it is also not legal for cattle use and it has an 18-24 month slaughter withdrawal. Don't use it!)

Dehydrated calf… note sunken-in eyes
Image

Note that dehydration doesn’t become evident until the animal has lost about 6% of their body weight in fluids, and kidney failure sets in around 11-12% loss. The calf above is severely dehydrated and needs to be on IV fluids. (For that matter, any scouring, recumbent –down – calf needs to be on IV fluids.)

Fluids can be given IV, SC, or orally (the preferred method unless the calf is down and cannot get up, then one really needs to run an IV). Note that if giving fluids IV or SC, you need to get saline solution or lactated ringers from your vet – don’t use plain water! Hopefully that’s a no-brainer but I feel obligated to mention it.

IVs are easiest if the calf is placed on its side (not too hard on a recumbent calf), the area is shaved and then doused with a good dose of rubbing alcohol -- it makes the vein stand up and it's much easier to see and hit with the needle, especially on a dehydrated animal. Sometimes it's easier to find the vein if you have a syringe attached to the needle and a couple cc's of dex or a similar relatively-harmless substance in the syringe so you can pull back. Make sure your saline solution/lactated ringers are at body temperature.

Electrolytes are very important as the calf loses a LOT of them when scouring. Anything that has dextrose, sodium chloride (salt), and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) can be used. It is possible to make homemade electrolytes, but is not ideal… especially sugar or corn syrup is not easily digested in the calf and can cause more scouring. Spend the money and buy the real stuff at your feed store or vet clinic that is actually designed for calves.

If you assume a scouring calf has lost 10% of its body weight, for 90lb calf that's 9lbs of fluid that need to be replaced before the calf is even back to "normal." A gallon of water weighs around 8.35lbs, so that's over a gallon that calf has lost, and if you're giving fluids orally, a lot of that won't be absorbed in a scouring calf. The goal in cases of scours is to make sure fluid input exceeds fluid output. One of the main causes of death in scouring calves is simple dehydration.

I did discover something new recently; an oral solution called “Double A solution” (my vet says it can also be given IV) and contains electrolytes, vitamins, minerals, and amino acids. I've given it orally, SC, and IV and I feel it’s equivalent or better than the powder stuff the feed stores carry. I've been pleased with the results I've seen after giving it to calves.

For anyone interested in reading more about scours and treatment, there was a really good lecture given in one of my classes about it, class notes here: http://uwadmnweb.uwyo.edu/vetsci/Course ... _Notes.htm

Calf's normal rectal temperature is 102.5'F.

Navel ill/joint ill is another common problem seen in calves within the first few weeks of life. Bacteria in the environment can enter the calf's blood stream through the fresh, broken umbilical cord. They can localize in joints (joint ill) or at the navel (navel ill) and cause an infection. Both require antibiotic treatment. Navel ill generally isn't too complicated to treat, joint ill generally is tough and prognosis is poor. Any calf in the first few weeks of life that is limping should be suspected of having joint ill, check for heat and swelling in legs. Knees tend to be a common place for joint ill. Consult with your vet.

Vaccinations... common question. Opinions differ on this one too. Maternal antibodies from the colostrum interfere with attempts to vaccinate the calf, and its own immune system isn't in top working order yet. Generally accepted opinion is to wait until 2-3 months before vaccinating. Much sooner than that and you're really just wasting your money. Won't hurt the calf, but probably won't do a bit of good either!

Common things to vaccinate against are:

Viral diseases:
BVD types I and II, IBR, BRSV, PI3

Lepto:
5 strains including hardjo

Clostridial:
7 or 8-way clostridial including blackleg

...and depending on location, often pinkeye, tetanus, and/or redwater too. Some people also vaccinate for pneumonia (pasturella, etc), footrot, neospora, scours (in calves), but those are less common vaccines. Consult with your vet about what might be needed in your area.

Brucellosis (bangs) is required in some states (heifers only!) -- check with your vet.

Remember to booster all vaccines as recommended on the label!!!

Last update 6/23/10
Last edited by milkmaid on Wed Jun 23, 2010 7:08 am, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: bottle calves for newbies

Postby skyline » Thu Aug 07, 2008 6:21 am

MM, excellent post, as usual. Thanks for the good information.
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Re: bottle calves for newbies

Postby spinandslide » Thu Aug 07, 2008 9:58 am

Great post as usual MM...

Ive got a question though :D So if my calf turns her nose up at hay, but eats her grain pretty willingly and eats green grass, I shouldnt worry about her not eating hay? Will it effect her rumen developing?
Or is this All in due time?
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Re: bottle calves for newbies

Postby TexasBred » Fri Aug 08, 2008 10:48 am

MM...if # 194 belongs to you, I'd hang a for sale sign around her neck. :lol: :lol: That is one ugly critter.
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Re: bottle calves for newbies

Postby larryshoat » Fri Aug 08, 2008 11:36 pm

Good post MM . A lot of helpful information :tiphat: .

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Re: bottle calves for newbies

Postby Double R Ranch » Mon Aug 11, 2008 12:23 pm

MM,
Great post, hope it will answer newbie question! If you need anymore dehydration pics let me know.
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Re: bottle calves for newbies

Postby IluvABbeef » Tue Aug 12, 2008 9:19 pm

spinandslide wrote:Great post as usual MM...

Ive got a question though :D So if my calf turns her nose up at hay, but eats her grain pretty willingly and eats green grass, I shouldnt worry about her not eating hay? Will it effect her rumen developing?
Or is this All in due time?


I'm not MM but I'll answer your question anyway: yes, you shouldn't worry about her not eating hay. Grain is the better feed to developing a calf's rumen because of the energy and protein content it contains that is adequate for the microflora growth in the rumen. Hay is only second to that, because there isn't as much CHOs and proteins in it as grain. Secondly, she will eventually eat hay on her own, all in due time.
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Re: bottle calves for newbies

Postby akburk2 » Fri Aug 22, 2008 11:16 am

milkmaid wrote:It seems as if everyone and their dog has bottle calves nowdays, and no idea how to care for them. So, I figure it’s about time to put together a post with some basic calf-raising information.

The cow’s colostrum contains important antibodies that will protect the calf from disease for the first few months of life, and so it is vital that the calf get colostrum within the first 24 hours of life. Between 0 and 24 hours the bovine gut is “open” and will absorb those antibodies. After 24 hours of life it is almost pointless to give colostrum and if the calf has not gotten colostrum yet, chances are high that keeping the calf alive will be an uphill battle for the first few months of life. Ideally the calf would get 1/2 gallon of colostrum within 2 hours after birth, and then 1/2 gallon 12 hours later.

Feeding a bottle calf for the first few times… I’ve seen people try to stand in front of the calf and simply hold the bottle out. Note that feeding a calf is not like coaxing a puppy over for a treat. The calf has no idea what the bottle is, and your job is to show him. Back the calf into a corner and either stand to the side as shown, or straddle him and stuff the bottle in his mouth. Notice the hand below the calf’s jaw to support her head.
Image

Look for a milk replacer designed for calves that is at least 20% protein and 20% fat, and made from real milk. Some replacers are made from soy milk and are inadequate for raising a calf.

Opinions differ on whether a bottle calf must be raised on a BOTTLE or if they can be given their milk in a bucket. Some studies have shown that the action of nursing causes the milk to be sent directly to the abomasum where the milk is best digested, whereas simply drinking from a bucket results in the milk going to the (currently undeveloped) rumen. Because of this, some people choose to bottle feed calves from birth to weaning. It is worth noting, however, that dairies bucket feed all calves, and it is done with no ill effects to the calf. In fact, most dairy heifers are big enough to breed as 12-14 month olds so bucket feeding evidently didn’t stunt their growth.

Grain is essential for raising bottle calves, and they need to stay on grain until they’re at least 400-500lbs and their rumen is big enough it can hold enough grass/hay to provide them with enough nutrition for growth. If bottle calves are not properly fed they will look “potbellied” and will be smaller than they should be for their age. A bottle calf really needs 2-2.5% of their body weight in grain that is at least 14-16% protein on a daily basis. Check the labels at your local feed store and try to find a specific “calf starter” for the first few months of the calf’s life.

Potbellied calves:
severe case...
Image

mild case... she's in good condition, but slightly potbellied
Image

The calf needs to be eating at least 2% of their body weight in grain before they can be weaned – otherwise they will not be getting adequate nutrition from their feed and will become stunted and potbellied.

Opinions also differ on when to feed hay to bottle calves. Some don’t introduce hay until after weaning so that the calf will learn to eat grain, since that is what will provide the most nutritionally for the calf. Others introduce hay right away to help develop the rumen (stemmy hay is ideal for kick-starting the rumen)… IMO it is simply a matter of preference as I’ve seen it done successfully both ways.

“Scours” is the cattleman’s term for diarrhea.
Image

It can be caused by anything from too much milk, to bacteria (ie. ecoli), to viruses (ie. rotavirus) to protozoa (ie crypto). Regardless of what caused it, the most important thing in a scours case is supportive therapy (fluids, electrolytes, etc.). Almost any antibiotic labeled for cattle is acceptable for treating scours. Preferred antibiotics are oxytetracycline 200, Spectam, sulfas (Sustain III or SMZs), terramycin, and occasionally penicillin, Baytril, Excenel… the only one I wouldn’t recommend is Nuflor, since diarrhea is a side effect of using Nuflor, and is not a good idea for a calf that’s already scouring. (Also note that while gentamicin is often effective against scours, it is also not legal for cattle use and it has an 18-24 month slaughter withdrawal. Don't use it!)

Dehydrated calf… note sunken-in eyes
Image

Note that dehydration doesn’t become evident until the animal has lost about 6% of their body weight in fluids, and kidney failure sets in around 11-12% loss. The calf above is severely dehydrated and needs to be on IV fluids. (For that matter, any scouring, recumbent –down – calf needs to be on IV fluids.)

Fluids can be given IV, SC, or orally (the preferred method unless the calf is down and cannot get up, then one really needs to run an IV). Note that if giving fluids IV or SC, you need to get saline solution or lactated ringers from your vet – don’t try plain water! Hopefully that’s a no-brainer but I feel obligated to mention it.

IVs are easiest if the calf is placed on its side (not too hard on a recumbent calf), the area is shaved and then doused with a good dose of rubbing alcohol -- it makes the vein stand up and it's much easier to see and hit with the needle, especially on a dehydrated animal. Sometimes it's easier to find the vein if you have a syringe attached to the needle and a couple cc's of dex or a similar relatively-harmless substance in the syringe so you can pull back. Make sure your saline solution/lactated ringers are at body temperature.

Electrolytes are very important as the calf loses a LOT of them when scouring. Anything that has dextrose, sodium chloride (salt), and sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) can be used. It is possible to make homemade electrolytes, but is not ideal… especially sugar or corn syrup is not easily digested in the calf and can cause more scouring. Spend the money and buy the real stuff at your feed store or vet clinic that is actually designed for calves.

I did discover something new recently; an oral solution called “Double A solution” (my vet says it can also be given IV) and contains electrolytes, vitamins, minerals, and amino acids. I feel it’s equivalent or better than the powder stuff the feed stores carry and I've been pleased with the results I've seen after giving it to calves.

Calf's normal rectal temperature is 102.5'F. Navel ill/joint ill... I'll add that info soon.

Vaccinations... common question. Opinions differ on this one too. Maternal antibodies from the colostrum interfere with attempts to vaccinate the calf, and its own immune system isn't in top working order yet. Generally accepted opinion is to wait until 2-3 months before vaccinating. Much sooner than that and you're really just wasting your money. Won't hurt the calf, but probably won't do a bit of good either!

Common things to vaccinate against are:

Viral diseases:
BVD types I and II, IBR, BRSV, PI3

Lepto:
5 strains including hardjo

Clostridial:
7 or 8-way clostridial including blackleg

...and depending on location, often pinkeye, tetanus, and/or redwater too. Some people also vaccinate for pneumonia (pasturella, etc), footrot, neospora, scours (in calves), but those are less common vaccines. Consult with your vet about what might be needed in your area.

Brucellosis (bangs) is required in some states (heifers only!) -- check with your vet.

Remember to booster all vaccines as recommended on the label!!!

That's all for tonight... experts feel free to add to what I've already said... and I'll work on it more later.



I first want to say that you have created a really nice post. I would like to talk a little about the remarks made about colostrum in the opening paragraphs. It is true that colostrum contains antibodies that will support the newborn's immune system for the first 90-120 days of life. It is true that after a certain period of time once the "gut" is no longer open IgG (the anti-body that is the protein carrier) can no longer be absorbed, however all of the other antibodies can still be absorbed, espically IgA. IgA is absorbed through the mucosal membranes of the respiratory and G.I. tract. and is found in blood, sweat, and tears. IgA contains lactoferrin and transferrin which work together to help the immune system become established. IgG is carried in the lymphatic and circulatory systems where it helps to neutralize toxins and other unwanted invaders, but like you said the absorption is only good for the first few hours of life. I agree that if a calf doesn't recieve colostrum within the first 6 hours of birth the battle has started, because his strength(IgG ... protein) levels are way behind. I disagree that colstrum is an unusable product after the first few hours of birth because of all the other benefits that it has to offer.... immunity boost, growth factors, feed efficiency factors.. etc. What you have to realize is that the powdered products have been denatured because the have been taken out of their original state (liquid) and made into a powdered product... not as powerful.

I have been hearing talks about a product called Re-Borne that is being used within the horse industry right now. There are talks that it could move into the cattle, swine, and possibly poultry industries. It is colostrum that has been sourced from USDA certified dairies and went through a special sterilization process and the product has never been altered from the original state. So it is 100% colostrum... the real deal. It has many uses not just for newborns, but backgrounders, farrowing houses etc. I believe that it might be a great product that we will need to keep our eyes and ears open on. I will try to do some more research on this product and see what happens. If you get time check out their website...www.Re-Borne-Equine.com.
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Re: bottle calves for newbies

Postby IGotMyWings » Mon Sep 01, 2008 12:22 pm

Well, that explains a few things! Having some cattle experience on my uncle's farm as a kid has given me some insight on how to raise my little herd, but we never had bottle or bucket calves, we had mostly feeders purchased from other farms and didn't have many calves of out of our heifers/cow My little red bull was just a few weeks old when I got him and was a bottle feeder. He took the bottle easilly and was actually hard to get started on "calf starter" and hay. He appears stunted to me, has a gut on him, but otherwise looks and acts healthy. I've asked around to others who have had bottle/bucket calves and they say that he's tubby, but the stunted part is to be expected and he'll be just fine, but a little smallish. I'll try to get a pic or two so that more informed minds can see what I'm looking at.
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Re: bottle calves for newbies

Postby IGotMyWings » Tue Sep 02, 2008 8:48 am

As promised, I have pics of my two calves. Lucky (named by the guy we got him from because he is lucky to be alive--mother got down in the last big snow storm we had here, and by the time they got to her, she could no longer stand so the calf was sectioned out and she was put down) is my Red Angus bull. He was born the last week of February.

Image

The little black and white fella is Harold...there used to be a restaurant here called Harold's Steer Inn, and since he's either going in the freezer here or being sold to go in someone elses freezer, my cruel sense of humor decided to name him after the joint.

Image

We got the bull when he was about 3 weeks old and already being bottle fed. We continued feeding the same replacer that the seller had been using. The steer was also about 3 weeks old, and the place that we got him had him in a very small pen, he was very skinny, he was a bucket calf, but the milk they had out for him was full of flies, and his pan of calf starter was moldy. He was spindly and had a snotty nose. We shot him with penicillin and started giving him the bottle. After a few days of bottle feeding him, we set out some starter, and it wasn't long before he had no interest in the bottle.
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Re: bottle calves for newbies

Postby mjdtexan » Mon Sep 08, 2008 10:40 am

Thanks for the post. I gained some information from it. How long are calves normally on the bottle?
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Re: bottle calves for newbies

Postby dun » Mon Sep 08, 2008 12:21 pm

mjdtexan wrote:Thanks for the post. I gained some information from it. How long are calves normally on the bottle?


8 weeks as long as they are eating a couple of pounds a day of calf grain
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Re: bottle calves for newbies

Postby mjdtexan » Mon Sep 08, 2008 12:41 pm

dun wrote:
mjdtexan wrote:Thanks for the post. I gained some information from it. How long are calves normally on the bottle?


8 weeks as long as they are eating a couple of pounds a day of calf grain


Well, thats not long at all. I wonder what eight weeks of bottle feeding cost and I also wonder how much a calf should weigh after the bottle feeding is done. I understand there will be varibles such as breed type, genitics of that calves family, proper diet, etc. Just trying to get a general guideline. Thanks for the info. I have learned alot that I didnt know a couple of days ago. Having said that, I do know that I dont know 1/millionth what you guys know. I honestly thought when I got the idea to get a coulpe calves that I was just gonna be able to turn them loose and they would mow the grass for me, get bigger, and fill my freezer.

I guess what I am trying to figure out right now is ifin it would be better to buy a 300lb or 400lb calf and let it graze/eat feed or is it viable to get a bottle calf.

It has been suggested by a fellow Texan on this board to buy the older calf and that seems like the better option for someone with no experiance, just weighing all options.
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Re: bottle calves for newbies

Postby dun » Mon Sep 08, 2008 2:47 pm

mjdtexan wrote:I guess what I am trying to figure out right now is ifin it would be better to buy a 300lb or 400lb calf and let it graze/eat feed or is it viable to get a bottle calf.

It has been suggested by a fellow Texan on this board to buy the older calf and that seems like the better option for someone with no experiance, just weighing all options.


Better to get a 5-6 weight.
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Re: bottle calves for newbies

Postby mjdtexan » Mon Sep 08, 2008 2:51 pm

dun wrote:
Better to get a 5-6 weight.


how come? calf more mature at that stage?
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