Anaplasmosis

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J&D Cattle
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby J&D Cattle » Mon May 07, 2018 3:30 pm

Fire Sweep Ranch wrote:Bryant,
I have been feeding Heat mineral, from Vitaferm. It has garlic (for flies) and another ingredient for the fescue (capsaicin - chili peppers, cinnamon and cloves) which helps with the circulation. We have almost no fly or tick problem, and do not pour, but we also used Long Range wormer earlier this spring.
I hope that helps some...


What does Heat run a bag approximately? I just bought Purina W/R Fly Control medicated 5600 this morning and it was $35.50/bag I believe.
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby Fire Sweep Ranch » Tue May 08, 2018 12:28 pm

I'd have to look at my last receipt, but if I remember correctly, it is about $70/100. I buy 100 pounds at a time. So comparable.
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby Jeanne - Simme Valley » Thu May 10, 2018 10:01 am

Can we, as producers, even use a mineral with CTC in it, without getting a script from VET?
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby talltimber » Thu May 10, 2018 9:30 pm

No, need a vfd.

I just called for one the other day. But, I'm mixing my own. Vet gal said she had only talked to one other producer for that. Everyone else is buying pre mixed. I am used to mixing mine, since Purina didn't offer it with hi mag until the vfd came out. I guess they figured you didnt need ctc when you also needed hi mag. I feed hi mag yr round.
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby Tbrake » Mon May 14, 2018 7:23 am

The last pallets of heat I bought ran me 30.50 without ctc. I buy 3 pallets at a time, so get a small discount. The medicated was around 37$ a bag, I decided it wasn’t worth it. My vet has told me the amount they consume from the mineral does nothing anyways.
We will see how that works out this year, flys and ticks are already out in full force.
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby SimAngHerf » Thu May 24, 2018 9:43 am

Tbrake wrote: My vet has told me the amount they consume from the mineral does nothing anyways.
We will see how that works out this year, flys and ticks are already out in full force.

My vet strongly recommended me to use the CTC in my minera this year due to some cases in the somewhat local area. Really makes it hard to make a decision when it’s so split like it is.
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby pdfangus » Thu May 24, 2018 10:28 am

I just ordered vaccine for my weanling replacements. bulls and heifers....
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby okiek » Thu May 24, 2018 2:11 pm

My vet strongly recommended me to use the CTC in my minera this year due to some cases in the somewhat local area. Really makes it hard to make a decision when it’s so split like it is.[/quote]

Same here
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby pdfangus » Thu May 24, 2018 2:21 pm

ctc IS BETTER THAN NOTHING BUT AS OTHERS HAVE SAID...YOU MIGHT HAVE TO PUT CORN WITH THE MINERAL TO GET THE INTAKE UP....

sorry not yelling...

my vet just messaged me that she has ordered Anaplasmosis vaccine for me to vaccinate my calves. vaccine and booster four weeks later should protect them for life... of course they will show a titer for anaplasmosis if they are ever tested....but I have driven into the field to find my top young cows with their feet in the air....don't ever wanna do it again.
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby SimAngHerf » Thu May 24, 2018 4:32 pm

pdfangus wrote:ctc IS BETTER THAN NOTHING BUT AS OTHERS HAVE SAID...YOU MIGHT HAVE TO PUT CORN WITH THE MINERAL TO GET THE INTAKE UP....

sorry not yelling...

my vet just messaged me that she has ordered Anaplasmosis vaccine for me to vaccinate my calves. vaccine and booster four weeks later should protect them for life... of course they will show a titer for anaplasmosis if they are ever tested....but I have driven into the field to find my top young cows with their feet in the air....don't ever wanna do it again.

I don’t monitor my intake to closely anymore but it’s somewhere around 6-8oz per day, they have cycles that are up and down. Do you know much about the vaccine? Is there much data behind it that indicates good immunity?
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby TCRanch » Thu May 24, 2018 5:32 pm

SimAngHerf wrote:
pdfangus wrote:ctc IS BETTER THAN NOTHING BUT AS OTHERS HAVE SAID...YOU MIGHT HAVE TO PUT CORN WITH THE MINERAL TO GET THE INTAKE UP....

sorry not yelling...

my vet just messaged me that she has ordered Anaplasmosis vaccine for me to vaccinate my calves. vaccine and booster four weeks later should protect them for life... of course they will show a titer for anaplasmosis if they are ever tested....but I have driven into the field to find my top young cows with their feet in the air....don't ever wanna do it again.

I don’t monitor my intake to closely anymore but it’s somewhere around 6-8oz per day, they have cycles that are up and down. Do you know much about the vaccine? Is there much data behind it that indicates good immunity?

Getting more popular in KS, my bulls are vaccinated and I'm definitely considering the vaccine for my entire herd.
http://www.angusbeefbulletin.com/extra/ ... mosis.html
http://anaplasmosisvaccine.com/aboutus.html
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby Lucky_P » Fri May 25, 2018 9:19 am

pdf and all
As far as I'm aware, the Anaplasmosis vaccine from University Products LLC requires a yearly booster after the initial two-dose series.
Vaccine does not prevent infection, but prevents clinical disease... and yes, those vaccinated animals will test 'seropositive' - but they may also be seropositive due to persistent low-level parasitemia... they won't get sick and die, but could still serve as a source of infection for ticks that may then feed on and transmit the parasite to uninfected cattle.

If I (or my next-door neighbor) had Anaplasmosis in our herd(s)... I would be vaccinating.

The level of CTC allowed in mineral will only protect up to a 750 lb animal - and then, only if they're eating their theoretical 4oz of mineral every day. There's not enough, and consumption is so variable, that I would never trust CTC-medicated mineral to provide 'protection' for mature cows/bulls. It might help, but the likelihood of 'breakthrough' cases is pretty high.
For effective 'control' of clinical disease, cattle need to consume 0.5mg CTC/lb body weight DAILY throughout the vector season(Apr-Nov here). Note that those animals consuming that level of CTC can/will still become infected... they just will be far less likely to develop clinical illness and die.
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby Jeanne - Simme Valley » Fri May 25, 2018 11:13 am

Lucky_P - you are great to take the time to give everyone this information. Thanks.
Anapl is still a "southern" problem - yes?? no?? I never hear anything about it here, but I know cattle coming up here from South, needs/should be tested?
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby Lucky_P » Fri May 25, 2018 1:16 pm

No longer just a 'Southern/Southeastern' problem. Believe it's been reported in most of the lower 48, and even into some Canadian provinces.
When we move cattle around... sometimes you get 'more than you'd bargained for'...
https://www.drovers.com/article/anger-over-anaplasmosis

It's so prevalent here in KY that I would not consider introducing a new animal into my herd without testing first...
know of a number of seedstock producers who are now testing... and if they have seropositive animals, they have been feeding high levels of CTC (2mg/lb daily) for 60+ days in an effort to 'clear' the infection. That is extra-label drug use; may not even be 'allowed' under current regulations... but it is effective for most(but perhaps not all!)... though you'd need to wait 3-6 months and re-test to see if titers drop into the negative category to determine if clearance was achieved... but be aware that those 'cleared' animals are now susceptible to reinfection and clinical disease which could progress to death.

We used to think that we could clear the infection with a couple of rounds of treatment with long-acting oxytetracycline. That's not the case... you can't get enough OTC in a cow to kill the organism...we just helped those animals survive the acut phase of the disease... and the serologic test(complement fixation) that we had, back in the day, was so poor that we missed the majority of persistently-infected animals... and further disseminated the disease.
However, the newer serologic test (cELISA) in use today is very sensitive, and quite specific.
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Re: Anaplasmosis

Postby Lucky_P » Fri May 25, 2018 1:29 pm

Following is an article I put together for distribution by the KY Cattlemen's Assn. back in 2013; to my knowledge, it's all still relevant:

It’s mid-August and bovine anaplasmosis season is upon us once again. Over the past week or so, diagnosticians at Murray State University-Breathitt Veterinary Center have fielded numerous telephone calls from veterinary practitioners in our service area regarding suspected cases of bovine anaplasmosis. Some producers have experienced mortality rates among mature animals as high as 20%, with deaths occurring over a 3-4 day period, and potentially more to come. MSU-BVC personnel have confirmed bovine anaplasmosis in sample submissions by cELISA testing and examination of blood and splenic impression smears on a number of submissions.

The causative agent of bovine anaplasmosis, Anaplasma marginale, is a rickettsial (bacterial) organism which is an obligate intracellular parasite, infecting the erythrocytes (red blood cells) of cattle. As the infected animal’s immune system recognizes parasitized erythrocytes, they are removed from circulation by the spleen and are destroyed - often more rapidly than they can be replaced - causing the animals to rapidly become anemic and icteric (jaundiced).
Affected animals will typically be greater than 2 years of age, will be febrile (103-105F), may lag behind or isolate themselves from the herd, exhibit anorexia, lethargy, increased respiratory rate and decreased milk production. Animals will be anemic, and in latter stages of the disease, mucous membranes may be noticeably icteric (jaundiced). Constipation is common, and normally docile animals may exhibit aggression, due to cerebral hypoxia. Affected cows may abort, and bulls may be rendered infertile for 6 months or longer. Producers frequently find animals dead, without having noticed significant behavioral abnormalities beforehand. At necropsy, connective tissues are diffusely yellow, blood is thin and watery, and the spleen is typically enlarged and pulpy.
Onset of clinical signs typically ensues 3-6 weeks following infection. Once 1% of erythrocytes are infected, the animals enter the acute phase of the disease, with the level of parasitemia doubling daily. Clinical signs generally ensue once 50% of erythrocytes are infected. Affected animals rapidly become anemic due to destruction of parasitized red blood cells and may die very quickly following the first indications that they are sick. In-herd mortality rates may occasionally approach 60-80%.
Clinical disease is rare in cattle less than 6 months of age. Affected animals less than 2 years of age may be ‘misdiagnosed’ as having bovine respiratory disease, as they may present with fever and elevated respiratory rate. If these animals are anemic and/or icteric, one should consider the possibility of anaplasmosis.

Anaplasma marginale strains present in our area of the country are primarily tick-vectored; biting flies such as horseflies and horn flies may play a minor role in transmission, but livestock producers should also be aware that they can effectively transmit the organism from animal to animal, if they re-use needles/equipment between animals when doing routine herd work such as vaccination, dehorning, etc. Trials performed at Kansas State University demonstrated animal-to-animal transmission in as many as 60% of cattle injected with a needle which had been previously inserted into a known A.marginale –infected animal.
We frequently hear claims from producers and veterinarians that whitetail deer are the source of infection for cattle herds, but long-term monitoring of the Southeastern deer herd, and specific research trials conducted by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study at University of Georgia have shown that whitetail deer are not an appropriate host for maintenance of A.maginale, and thus are unlikely to be involved in dissemination or transmission of this disease, other than possibly acting as a vector for carrying infected ticks from one premise to another.

The Anaplasma organism changes two of its major surface proteins every six weeks, so infected animals’ immune systems are constantly ‘re-exposed’ to a ‘new’ strain of the organism on a continuing basis – but are unable to effectively ‘clear’ the infection. Adult animals which have become infected with A.marginale and survive or recover from clinical disease, as well as calves which may have been infected in utero or during their first year, are unlikely to develop subsequent clinical disease, but must be considered to be persistently-infected with the organism and may continually serve as a potential source of infection for naïve animals in the herd.

Laboratory diagnostic techniques have improved in recent years; the complement fixation(CF) card test used in the past had very low sensitivity(20%), with high incidence of false negatives – which likely fostered dissemination of infected animals. The competitive ELISA (cELISA) serologic test for anaplasmosis is highly specific and sensitive, but may not detect animals during the incubation phase 3-6 weeks following infection. Real-time PCR tests may be positive as early as 3 weeks post-infection. Microscopic examination of blood smears is generally unfruitful until parasitemia exceeds the 1% infection rate- which is approximately the time that clinical disease ensues. Recovered, persistently-infected animals will remain seropositive, but organisms may be present in numbers too few to demonstrate on microscopic examination of stained blood smears, but may be detected with PCR.

As most veterinarians are aware, treatment of clinically-affected animals must be undertaken with care, as some of these animals may be extremely anemic and may die during the process and stress of handling and treatment.
Oxytetracycline (OTC) has historically been used as a treatment for anaplasmosis, although no oxytetracycline products carry a USDA label claim for that use, which places it in an Extra-Label Drug Use category. OTC – even multiple doses - will not clear A.marginale infection. As OTC is a bacteriostatic antimicrobial agent, it merely slows replication of the organism, allowing the infected animal to (hopefully) mount an immune response and accelerate production of new red blood cells. Whole-herd treatment with OTC may result in varied success, as animals treated early in the incubation period may merely have the onset of clinical disease delayed as a result of treatment. Deaths may continue to occur several weeks following OTC treatment in animals which were treated during the incubation phase of the disease.

Feeding Chlortetracycline (CTC), at a level of 0.5mg/lb/day throughout the vector season, has been shown to control active disease due to Anaplasma marginale; it will not, however, prevent infection. Unfortunately, most CTC-medicated mineral mixes will not reliably supply this level of drug as fed, and, as animals may not consume mineral on a daily basis, CTC-medicated mineral cannot generally be relied upon to provide effective control of clinical anaplasmosis. Feeding CTC at levels of 2mg/lb/day for 60 days may clear most infections – but possibly not all. Animals cleared by feeding high-level CTC will test seronegative within 4-6 months – but ‘cleared’ animals will once again be susceptible to infection and development of clinical disease.

A proven, commercially-produced, inactivated Anaplasma marginale vaccine was approved in 2013 for sale and use in Kentucky cattle by Dr. Bob Stout, KY State Veterinarian. The vaccine does not prevent A.marginale infection, but does appear to prevent clinical disease in properly vaccinated animals. Reports from producers who are currently using this vaccine have been favorable.
Please contact your veterinarian for further guidance and assistance in planning and instituting an anaplasmosis control and treatment program. You can be certain that diagnosticians at MSU-BVC and UK-VDL are ready and willing to assist you and your veterinarian in diagnosis of this common cattle disease.
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