Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

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Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by flounder » Mon Jan 07, 2019 11:41 am

Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Kevin Christopher Gough, BSc (Hons), PhD1, Claire Alison Baker, BSc (Hons)2, Steve Hawkins, MIBiol3, Hugh Simmons, BVSc, MRCVS, MBA, MA3, Timm Konold, DrMedVet, PhD, MRCVS3 and Ben Charles Maddison, BSc (Hons), PhD2

Author affiliations

School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, The University of Nottingham, Loughborough, UK ADAS, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, The University of Nottingham, Loughborough, UK Animal Sciences Unit, Pathology Department, Animal & Plant Health Agency Weybridge, New Haw, Addlestone, Surrey, UK E-mail for correspondence; ben.maddison@adas.co.uk

Abstract

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathy scrapie of sheep/goats and chronic wasting disease of cervids are associated with environmental reservoirs of infectivity.

Preventing environmental prions acting as a source of infectivity to healthy animals is of major concern to farms that have had outbreaks of scrapie and also to the health management of wild and farmed cervids.

Here, an efficient scrapie decontamination protocol was applied to a farm with high levels of environmental contamination with the scrapie agent.

Post-decontamination, no prion material was detected within samples taken from the farm buildings as determined using a sensitive in vitro replication assay (sPMCA).

A bioassay consisting of 25 newborn lambs of highly susceptible prion protein genotype VRQ/VRQ introduced into this decontaminated barn was carried out in addition to sampling and analysis of dust samples that were collected during the bioassay.

Twenty-four of the animals examined by immunohistochemical analysis of lymphatic tissues were scrapie-positive during the bioassay, samples of dust collected within the barn were positive by month 3.

The data illustrates the difficulty in decontaminating farm buildings from scrapie, and demonstrates the likely contribution of farm dust to the recontamination of these environments to levels that are capable of causing disease.

snip...

PrPC is ubiquitous in its distribution in vivo2 and with both scrapie and CWD the in vivo dissemination of infectivity is also widespread with PrPSc usually accumulating within peripheral lymphatic tissues before the CNS.3 4 With scrapie, PrPSc can be secreted/ excreted via a multiplicity of routes including saliva,5 6 milk,7 faeces,8 skin9 and urine.10 The accumulation of this material within the environment (particularly the built farm environment),11 12 creates levels of infectivity that can be transmitted to naïve animals. These reservoirs of infectivity can remain infectious for prolonged periods of time, in one such recorded incident at least 16 years.13 The advent of high sensitivity prion replication assays such as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) with application to sheep/goat scrapie14 15 has allowed the monitoring of prions within environments.11

Attempts to decontaminate pens on a scrapie-affected farm and measuring efficacy using a sheep bioassay were previously reported.12 It was concluded that the failure of effective decontamination within that study was likely to have been due to the incomplete farm decontamination and the presence of dust containing infectious prions that recontaminated the pen surfaces. The serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) technique was recently used to confirm the presence of prions within extracts prepared from dust samples that had settled on sterile surfaces.16 Given the presence of mobile infectious prions within dust, it was proposed that for effective scrapie decontamination emphasis should be given to the removal of all sources of dust within the decontamination strategy for a farm. More recently, the sPMCA technique has been used by the authors' laboratory to look at effective methods of decontaminating prions bound to concrete surfaces within the laboratory setting.17 This study demonstrated that current methodology based on a one-hour exposure to 20000 ppm free chlorine was likely to be ineffective at removing surface-bound scrapie prion. However, there was an enhanced effectiveness of this chemical decontamination when using multiple applications over four hours. Here, a study is described where a scrapie-affected farm was decontaminated using four applications of 20000 ppm free chlorine to livestock barns and concreted areas. The decontamination also included a high-level clean of the buildings that had housed sheep to remove all traces of dust as far as practicable before the chemical decontamination procedure. Following these treatments the surfaces within the barn were demonstrably free from prion using a sensitive sPMCA assay. The presence of any residual infectivity was then evaluated by sheep bioassay and dust samples collected during the bioassay were assayed for prion seeding activity by sPMCA.

snip...

Discussion

The authors' previous work on this farm indicated that dust harbours low levels of mobile scrapie prions that can accumulate on surfaces16 and this is likely to perpetuate transmission of scrapie within such a farm environment.12 In addition, previous in vitro modelling of scrapie prions bound to a concrete ‘fomite’ demonstrated that prion seeding activity could be inactivated by four applications of 20,000 ppm free chlorine as measured by a sPMCA assay. This previous modelling demonstrated that residual contamination of the swab extract with hypochlorite at levels which would inhibit the sPMCA are unlikely, and the authors consider these results as reduction in seeding titre.17 Here, this same decontamination methodology was tested within a farm-scale study which also included steps to remove dust within the barns. This study demonstrated that this thorough decontamination method applied to a farm with a high incidence of naturally acquired scrapie was sufficient to remove scrapie prions on surfaces to levels that were undetectable by sPMCA, one of the most sensitive biochemical assays for prions. The authors' sPMCA assay has an limit of detection of around 1–10pg scrapie-infected sheep brain per sPMCA reaction. The authors assume that the samples negative by sPMCA had less than this amount (of brain equivalent) within the extracts that were prepared. This treatment together with measures designed to minimise the amount of dust retained within the buildings (vacuuming all surfaces, pressure washing and then hypochlorite treatment) was expected to have removed all infectivity from the buildings and the concrete areas surrounding them, and it was anticipated that the sheep bioassay would confirm absence of infective prion.

However, the introduction into this decontaminated barn of 25 VRQ/VRQ sheep (a genotype highly susceptible to classical scrapie) demonstrated that all animals, with the exception of 1 lamb that died at 122 dpe, had detectable PrPSc in lymphoid tissue, indicating infection with the scrapie agent. This included 14 animals (54 per cent) that were PrPSc-positive on the first RAMALT analysis at 372 dpe or 419 dpe. Although infected sheep were removed based on a positive RAMALT result, it is possible that lateral transmission or subsequent contamination of the environment from infected sheep had contributed to the rapid spread of scrapie in nearly all sheep. It has been shown previously that objects in contact with scrapie-infected sheep, such as water troughs and fence posts, can act as a reservoir for infection.23 As in the authors' previous study,12 the decontamination of this sheep barn was not effective at removing scrapie infectivity, and despite the extra measures brought into this study (more effective chemical treatment and removal of sources of dust) the overall rates of disease transmission mirror previous results on this farm. With such apparently effective decontamination (assuming that at least some sPMCA seeding ability is coincident with infectivity), how was infectivity able to persist within the environment and where does infectivity reside? Dust samples were collected in both the bioassay barn and also a barn subject to the same decontamination regime within the same farm (but remaining unoccupied). Within both of these barns dust had accumulated for three months that was able to seed sPMCA, indicating the accumulation of scrapie-containing material that was independent of the presence of sheep that may have been incubating and possibly shedding low amounts of infectivity.

This study clearly demonstrates the difficulty in removing scrapie infectivity from the farm environment. Practical and effective prion decontamination methods are still urgently required for decontamination of scrapie infectivity from farms that have had cases of scrapie and this is particularly relevant for scrapiepositive goatherds, which currently have limited genetic resistance to scrapie within commercial breeds.24 This is very likely to have parallels with control efforts for CWD in cervids.

Acknowledgements The authors thank the APHA farm staff, Tony Duarte, Olly Roberts and Margaret Newlands for preparation of the sheep pens and animal husbandry during the study. The authors also thank the APHA pathology team for RAMALT and postmortem examination.

Funding This study was funded by DEFRA within project SE1865.

Competing interests None declared.

https://veterinaryrecord.bmj.com/conten ... 05054.long

Saturday, January 5, 2019

Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

https://prionprp.blogspot.com/2019/01/r ... lding.html

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 28, 2018

***> Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion 2019 Where The Rubber Meets The Road

https://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspo ... prion.html

Saturday, December 15, 2018

***> ADRD Summit RFI Singeltary COMMENT SUBMISSION BSE, SCRAPIE, CWD, AND HUMAN TSE PRION DISEASE December 14, 2018

https://prionprp.blogspot.com/2018/12/a ... mment.html

TUESDAY, JANUARY 1, 2019

CHILDHOOD EXPOSURE TO CADAVERIC DURA

https://betaamyloidcjd.blogspot.com/201 ... -dura.html

Goose: "No. No, Mav, this is not a good idea."

terry :bang:



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Re: Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by Son of Butch » Tue Jan 08, 2019 12:44 am

Scabies - caused by female mite burrowing into skin and laying eggs. Usually restricted to impoverished rural areas.
Effective treatments, ivermectin, permethrin, malathion and sulfur ointments.
Mites cannot survive more than 72 hrs without a host.
Prevention, improved sanitation and reduced over crowding.

Above link connects to (2014) researchers calling for immediate global conference to secure gazillions of dollars from
world governments to report every documented case of Alzheimer's in the world (to fund their employment and research)
Scare tactic: mites may also be involved in causing Alzheimer's, but you'll never know for sure unless you give us the
money to save us all and live forever.... a great bunch of humanitarians. :)
Last edited by Son of Butch on Tue Jan 08, 2019 12:56 am, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by Aaron » Tue Jan 08, 2019 12:55 am

If I die and flounder is in Heaven handing out pamphlets on prion disease, I am asking to be rerouted.
cor durum laborem

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Re: Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by Silver » Tue Jan 08, 2019 11:03 am

I think he may be better served using his time to investigate his own brain function issues. But that's just my opinion.

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Re: Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by sim.-ang.king » Tue Jan 08, 2019 11:11 am

Son of Butch wrote:Scabies - caused by female mite burrowing into skin and laying eggs. Usually restricted to impoverished rural areas.
Effective treatments, ivermectin, permethrin, malathion and sulfur ointments.
Mites cannot survive more than 72 hrs without a host.
Prevention, improved sanitation and reduced over crowding.

Above link connects to (2014) researchers calling for immediate global conference to secure gazillions of dollars from
world governments to report every documented case of Alzheimer's in the world (to fund their employment and research)
Scare tactic: mites may also be involved in causing Alzheimer's, but you'll never know for sure unless you give us the
money to save us all and live forever.... a great bunch of humanitarians. :)


Maybe flouder will donate his brain.

For science you know.
"While we recognize that the subject did not steal any horses he is obviously guilty of trying to resist being hanged for it."

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Re: Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by Nesikep » Tue Jan 08, 2019 11:58 am

sim.-ang.king wrote:
Son of Butch wrote:Scabies - caused by female mite burrowing into skin and laying eggs. Usually restricted to impoverished rural areas.
Effective treatments, ivermectin, permethrin, malathion and sulfur ointments.
Mites cannot survive more than 72 hrs without a host.
Prevention, improved sanitation and reduced over crowding.

Above link connects to (2014) researchers calling for immediate global conference to secure gazillions of dollars from
world governments to report every documented case of Alzheimer's in the world (to fund their employment and research)
Scare tactic: mites may also be involved in causing Alzheimer's, but you'll never know for sure unless you give us the
money to save us all and live forever.... a great bunch of humanitarians. :)


Maybe flouder will donate his brain.

For science you know.

I'm certain nothing will be found
What can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence
-Christopher Hitchens

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Re: Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by Silver » Tue Jan 08, 2019 3:14 pm

Nesikep wrote:
sim.-ang.king wrote:
Son of Butch wrote:Scabies - caused by female mite burrowing into skin and laying eggs. Usually restricted to impoverished rural areas.
Effective treatments, ivermectin, permethrin, malathion and sulfur ointments.
Mites cannot survive more than 72 hrs without a host.
Prevention, improved sanitation and reduced over crowding.

Above link connects to (2014) researchers calling for immediate global conference to secure gazillions of dollars from
world governments to report every documented case of Alzheimer's in the world (to fund their employment and research)
Scare tactic: mites may also be involved in causing Alzheimer's, but you'll never know for sure unless you give us the
money to save us all and live forever.... a great bunch of humanitarians. :)


Maybe flouder will donate his brain.

For science you know.

I'm certain nothing will be found


We don't know that. I think he needs to donate it sooner rather than later, for the benefit of mankind and all.... even if nothing is found the net benefit to mankind would tremendous.

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Re: Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by Hook2.0 » Tue Jan 08, 2019 4:21 pm

Thanks for picking up my slack fellas
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Re: Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by TennesseeTuxedo » Tue Jan 08, 2019 5:39 pm

I still say don't feed the trolls.
You're not paranoid, they really are out to get you!

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Re: Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by Silver » Tue Jan 08, 2019 6:14 pm

TennesseeTuxedo wrote:I still say don't feed the trolls.


I agree with that, that's generally my take too. But between Ranchers and CattleToday this troll has been not so quietly lurking under the bridge for more than 10 years I think. He's not going away, so might as well laugh at the clown.

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Re: Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by Nesikep » Tue Jan 08, 2019 6:19 pm

He's just floundering around
What can be asserted without evidence can be dismissed without evidence
-Christopher Hitchens

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Re: Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by greybeard » Wed Jan 09, 2019 11:06 am

sim.-ang.king wrote:
Son of Butch wrote:Scabies - caused by female mite burrowing into skin and laying eggs. Usually restricted to impoverished rural areas.
Effective treatments, ivermectin, permethrin, malathion and sulfur ointments.
Mites cannot survive more than 72 hrs without a host.
Prevention, improved sanitation and reduced over crowding.

Above link connects to (2014) researchers calling for immediate global conference to secure gazillions of dollars from
world governments to report every documented case of Alzheimer's in the world (to fund their employment and research)
Scare tactic: mites may also be involved in causing Alzheimer's, but you'll never know for sure unless you give us the
money to save us all and live forever.... a great bunch of humanitarians. :)


Maybe flouder will donate his brain.

For science you know.

Probably safe tho, when the Zombie apocalypse comes...
"For evil to flourish, all that is required is for good men to do nothing" Burke

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Re: Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by flounder » Sun Jan 20, 2019 10:25 am

cwd tse prion is a political disease, spreads by industry, lobbyist there from, their constant junk science, and the be nice politicians that believe it, as long as a fist full of dollars goes into the campaign contributions, they still believe anything, welcome to corporate america, we reap what we sow, sheer ignorance, or, in terms of the cwd tse prion aka mad deer type disease science i call, 'TED NUGENT SCIENCE', of which, many of which his followers are right here, well, here's your sign.

Texas Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Symposium 2018 posted January 2019 VIDEO SET 18 CLIPS

See Wisconsin update...terrible news, right after Texas updated map around 5 minute mark...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JAK_YBZ ... rGxj&t=299

update on Wisconsin from Tammy Ryan...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hvy2SMG ... ytO828rGxj

SATURDAY, JANUARY 19, 2019

Texas Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion Symposium 2018 posted January 2019 VIDEO SET 18 CLIPS

https://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspo ... d-tse.html

MONDAY, JANUARY 14, 2019

Evaluation of iatrogenic risk of CJD transmission associated with Chronic Wasting Disease TSE Prion in Texas TAHC TPWD

It is a dimension as vast as space and as timeless as infinity. It is the middle ground between light and shadow, between science and superstition, and it lies between the pit of man's fears and the summit of his knowledge. This is the dimension of imagination. It is NOT, an area which we call the Twilight Zone, but an area that believes junk science, and the very industries and lobbyist some Texas Hunters, the cervid industry, that insist on shoving the fake news down their throats, we call this ted nugent junk science, and in TEXAS, sometimes you just can't fix stupid, this is where the rubber meets the road, here's your sign!

chronic wasting disease cwd tse prion aka mad deer elk disease, if you consume a cwd tse prion positive cervid, then months, years, decades later, go on to have surgery, dental, ophthalmology, endoscopy, donate tissue, blood, organs, you then expose those medical theaters and tissue, blood, organs, that are incubating the infectious cwd tse prion disease, to everyone that comes in contact.

these are not memes, these are actual statements from hunters/industry in Texas about CWD tse prion.

God help them, and us...terry

''Got a call today from TPWD, I’ve got a mule deer that tested early positive for CWD. I’m soon to turn into a zombie because I have already been eating it. They advised not to consume any of the meat...too late! They want to come confiscate what meat is left once they get more results back from another lab.''

snip...

https://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspo ... f-cjd.html

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 28, 2018

***> Chronic Wasting Disease CWD TSE Prion 2019 Where The Rubber Meets The Road

https://chronic-wasting-disease.blogspo ... prion.html

Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

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Re: Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by Son of Butch » Sun Jan 20, 2019 12:02 pm

flounder wrote:cwd tse prion is a political disease, spreads.... by lobbyist.... and.... a fist full of dollars ....
This is the dimension of imagination..... which we call.... the cervid industry,

you just can't fix stupid.... here's your sign!
if you consume a cwd tse prion positive cervid, then decades later, go on to.... donate blood, you then expose....
incubating the infectious cwd tse prion disease, to everyone that comes in contact.
Terry S. Singeltary Sr.

Maybe that explains it... I've had relatives born completely healthy and then (8 or 9) decades later out of the blue
they just up and died.

Terry - now that I've been enlightened, what do you want me to do?

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Re: Rapid recontamination of a farm building occurs after attempted prion removal

Post by Silver » Sun Jan 20, 2019 12:19 pm

I recently turned 65 and had to choose a new primary care physician for my Medicare program.
After two visits and exhaustive lab tests, he said I was doing "fairly well" for my age.
A little concerned about that comment, I couldn't resist asking him, "Do you think I will live to be 80?"
He asked: Do you smoke tobacco or drink alcoholic beverages?"
"Oh no," I replied. "I don't do drugs, either."
"Do you have many friends and entertain frequently?"
"I said, "No, I usually stay home and keep to myself".
"Do you eat rib-eye steaks and barbecued ribs?"
I said, "No, my other doctor said that all red meat is unhealthy!"
"Do you spend a lot of time in the sun, like playing golf, sailing, hiking, or bicycling?"
"No, I don't," I said.
"Do you gamble, drive fast cars, or have a lot of sex?"
"No," I said. "I don't do any of those things."

He looked at me and said, "Then why do you give a sh#$%t ?

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